MonoGRAF. Draughting program

MonoGRAF Entities

With MonoGRAF the drawing of graphic entities is based on the following principles:

  • all graphic entities are specified by a few points. The current default method of specification of points is determined by the "modes" option in the control menu. If you wish to override the default method to enter a single point, you should select "point" from the same menu;

  • the attributes of the graphic entities (color, line-type, level of detail) are inherited from the system default values. These values can be overridden through the "parameters" option in the control menu;

  • the graphic primitives (line, circle, arc) are specified in drag mode. When you move the cursor prior to the specification of the next point, you see on the screen all intermediate graphic entities corresponding to the current point as the element is being dragged around. This facility is a powerful way to provide immediate visual feedback of the results as the primitives are drawn. The dragging of lines, circles, and arcs are illustrated in the following figure:

    Drag mode types

    Drag mode types

The draw entities submenu includes the following functions and submenus:

Draw entities submenu

Line

The "line" function draws a line between two selected points. You may enter the point(s) in coordinates from the keyboard, or by the graphics input device using any of the point selection options, available via the "point" function of the control menu. The second point, if selected by a graphics input device, is shown as a "rubber band line" (dragmode).

PROMPTS:
  • Select/enter first point
  • Select/enter second point
After you have selected or entered both points a line is drawn on your screen. If both points coincide, no line is drawn and you get the following error message:
"Identical points"

PARAMETERS available via the control menu:
"linetype, color, level of detail"

Polyline

The "polyline" function draws a polyline, consisting of lines and/or circular arcs. In MonoGRAF a polyline is a continuous set of lines and/or arcs where the endpoint of each line or arc is the start point of the next line or arc. The arcs are drawn as a smooth continuation of the previous line or arc. A polyline may consist only of lines or only of arcs or both lines and arcs. If you wish to change the next polyline element from line to arc or from arc to line, you should pick the "params" function of the control menu. You must bear in mind the fact, that the polyline is not a group, but a convenient way of drawing a series of connected lines and/or arcs. Being a connected set of entities, the entire polyline can, when necessary, be selected by the "joined entities" option for object selection. You may enter the point(s) in coordinates from the keyboard, or by the graphics input device using any of the point selection options, available via the "point" function of the control menu.

PROMPTS:
  • Polyline start point?
  • Next polyline point or end?
  • Any point on the arc (in the case of an arc)
You may end the polyline whenever you like by selecting the "end" function from the control menu, or by pressing the ESC key. If you have entered two consecutive points with the same coordinates, you get the following error message: "Identic points"

PARAMETERS available via the "params" function of the control menu: "polyline element, linetype, color, level of detail"

Draw a polyline

Draw a polyline

As with many functions of the system, in this function the user also may execute the "undo" function using the "oops" submenu of the control menu. If the user is in the process of executing the "polyline" function, "undo" means deleting the last generated element and after that the generation of the polyline continues. If the user has finished with the creation of the polyline, then "undo" means deleting the polyline . You can edit the polyline immediately after you have specified its last point. After that you have the following choices:
  • If you select "open", there will be no further editing.
  • A selection of "closed" will draw a line between the polyline's last and very first point thus closing the polyline.
  • The selection of "connected" is valid only if both the first and last polyline elements are lines. In this case the last and first lines are extended or truncated to meet in their intersection point.
  • The "orthogonal open" option is valid only if the last two polyline elements are lines. If you select it, the place of the point before last will be recalculated so that the last two lines are at right angles.
  • The "orthogonal closed" option requires that the first and last polyline elements are lines. In this case the first and last lines are edited so that they connect at right angles.
If the layout of the polyline elements does not allow the execution of the desired option, you get the error message: "Impossible to execute"

Double polyline

MonoGRAF offers you the option to draw a polyline consisting of two parallel lines. Basically you draw a double polyline in the same manner as a polyline. There are two options for the specification of the double polyline:
  • specify the points on the axis line;
  • specify the points on one of the parallel lines and the start and end point of the other.
PROMPTS:
  • Distance between polylines" - you specify it as a real positive number or the distance between two points.
  • Polyline or axis line start point?" - Depending on your choice of double polyline specification this is either the start point of the axis line or the first point of one of the polylines.
  • Second polyline start point or Enter for axis start" - If you press the Enter key you select the first double polyline draw option. Otherwise you can select the second option by specifying the start point of the second parallel polyline.
Besides the above prompts, the dialog for the double polyline is the same as the single polyline with the exception that the two parallel lines are drawn with a step behind on the screen, i.e. you see the last lines for the specified set of points after the specification of the next set of points.

If you enter points in a way that a last set of lines cannot be drawn, you get the message: "Impossible to execute" and are prompted for a new set of points.

After you select "end" from the control menu, you have the following options:
  • open - No further processing. If you are not using the axis method you are prompted to enter the second polyline end point;
  • connected open - both open ends of the polyline are connected with lines at right angles to the parallel lines;
  • closed - works only if the beginning and ending elements of the double polyline are straight lines. In this case the lines are extended to their intersection point.


Rectangle

The "rectangle" function draws a rectangle on two diagonal points. By default it is drawn with its sides parallel to the x and y axes. You may draw it at any angle with respect to the x axis via the "params" function of the control menu specifying the angle in the interval of [-90,+90] degrees. You may enter the point(s) in coordinates from the keyboard, or through the graphics input device using any of the point selection options, available via the "point" function of the control menu. You must bear in mind the fact, that the rectangle is not a group, but a convenient way to draw 4 connected lines in the form of a rectangle. Being a connected set of entities, the rectangle can be selected when needed with the "joined entities" option for object selection.

PROMPTS:
  • First point"
  • Diagonal point"
If you have entered two consecutive points with the same coordinates, you get the following error message: "The rectangle is not specified"

PARAMETERS available via the "params" function of the control menu: "rotation angle, linetype, color, level of detail"

Polygon

The "polygon" function draws a polygon given the center, a point on the circle in which it is circumscribed (in or out) and the number of sides (from 3 to 20). You may enter the center point and the point on the circumference in coordinates from the keyboard, or through the graphics input device using any of the point selection options, available via the "point" function of the control menu. You must bear in mind the fact, that the rectangle is not a group, but a convenient way to draw connected lines in the form of a regular polygon. Being a connected set of lines, the polygon can be selected when needed with the "joined entities" option for object selection.

PROMPTS:
  • Polygon type?
  • Polygon center?
  • Point on circle
  • Number of sides?
If the number you enter for the number of sides is outside the limits [3,20], you get the following error message: "Number outside limits"

PARAMETERS available via the "params" function of the control menu: "linetype, color, level of detail".

Draw a polygon

Draw a polygon


Figures

The "figures" function draws a continuous set of connected lines. Each line, specified by two points, is automatically connected with lines to the respective (first and second) points of the previous line. It offers you a convenient way to draw quickly connected 3- and 4-sided figures, which can be easily selected together with the "connected entities" option for object selection. You may enter the point(s) in coordinates from the keyboard, or through the graphics input device using any of the point selection options, available via the "point" function of the control menu. You can discontinue the drawing of new figures by selecting the "end" function from the control menu or by pressing the key on the keyboard.

PROMPTS:
  • Select/enter first point
  • Select/enter second point
These two prompts are repeated for every line of the set. If both points coincide, no line is drawn and you get the following error message: "Identical points" If the end points of the previous and current line coincide you get the error message: "This is not a closed contour"

PARAMETERS available via the "params" function of the control menu: "linetype, color, level of detail"

Draw a figure

Draw a figure


Circle

You can draw a circle in one of the following eight ways using the following functions of the "circle" submenu:
  • Center & point - draws a 2-point circle (center and any point on the circle) in "rubber band circle" mode;

  • Center & radius - draws a circle by the center point and specified radius;

  • 2 pts on diameter - draws a circle by the two endpoints on any of its diameters;

  • 3 point circle - draws a circle, specified by any 3 points on it;

  • Tangent to line - draws a circle tangent to a selected line;

  • Tangent to two lines - draws a circle tangent to two selected lines;

  • Tangent to circle - draws a circle tangent to a selected circle;

  • Tangent to line & circle - draws a circle tangent to a selected line and to a selected circle;

Learning more about draw circles



Arc

You can draw an arc by one of eight different methods using the following functions of the "arc" submenu:
  • 3 points on arc - draws a 3-point arc. The first and second points are the arc's endpoints and the third is any point on the arc;

  • begin, center, incl.angle - draws an arc by specified start point, center point and included angle;

  • begin, center, chord - draws an arc by specified start point, center point and length of chord;

  • begin, end, center - draws an arc by specified start, end and center points;

  • begin, end, radius - draws an arc by specified start and end points and length of radius;

  • begin, end, incl.angle - draws an arc by specified start and end points and included angle;

  • begin, end, tangent - draws an arc by specified start and end points and starting direction;

  • continue line - draws an arc as a smooth continuation of an existing line or arc (polyline arc).

Learning more about draw arcs



Hatch

Hatching parts of a drawing is limited by the following rules:
  • only closed contours can be hatched;
  • to hatch an open contour you must first close it with a line of background colour. You may need to add lines of background colour to a complex contour, if the drawn hatch is not satisfactory;
  • to hatch a closed contour containing inner areas that must not be hatched, you must join the graphic entities of the inner contour with the main contour;
  • to avoid hatching over an existing text, you must join the text with the contour specifying the hatching.
The "hatch" function starts by entering the object selection options. You are asked to select all objects, which take part in the hatching, including the objects defining areas to be excluded from the hatching.

After you have selected all real entities taking part in the hatch and confirming your choice, you are asked:

"Do you want to change the hatch contour?

If you respond with "yes", a special function resembling the polyline is invoked, prompting for first and next points. All lines are drawn with invisible (background) color. This polyline elements can be lines as well as arcs. For your convenience the "on intersection point" point selection option is activated automatically, but can be overridden for the next point by selecting the "point" option on the control menu. The special polyline is completed as the standard polyline function by selecting "end" on the control menu, or pressing the ESC key. After you finish this special polyline with invisible lines, you are prompted once again if you want to change the hatch contour. By responding with "yes", you can create another polyline with invisible lines. If you respond with "no", MonoGRAF assumes that you have fully defined the contour(s) to be hatched. After you select the contour(s), you are prompted to specify a point within the desired hatch area:

"Enter a point within the closed contour"

This point is used for centering the hatch line.

The next prompt is: "Select hatch type"

The user can select the hatch type from the variable menu including the following elements: The hatch type is indicated by the cursor or by input through the keyboard. By default, the "metal" hatch type with an inclined angle of 45 and distance between hatch lines 0.5 are set. If the user has selected the "metal" hatch type he gets the following additional prompts that complete the hatch specification:

"Angle of hatch lines?"
"Distance between hatch lines?"

The distance may be entered as a real number via the keyboard or as a distance between two points. It defines the density of the hatch. The hatch lines angle may be entered as a real number via the keyboard or by 3 points, specifying the desired angle. After the end of the dialog, the hatch will be visualized.

If indicated graphical object isn't a line, circle, arc or text, then the hatch isn't created and a prompt is issued: "Function not applicable to select object".

Complex drawing with hatches

Complex drawing with hatches

Text

With MonoGRAF you can write texts using two fonts: a "standard" font (all characters are drawn with lines) and a "smooth" font (all characters are drawn with lines and arcs). You can define a font of your own by providing descriptions for the characters, their shapes, their height/width ratios, slant, etc. Font definitions are kept in files. Sample font definitions are contained in files STANDARD.TXS and COMPLEX.TXS. The system uses the current font to generate a text object. In case you wish to use a different font, you must explicitly specify it as the current font by the "text font" option. All available text fonts can be transform automatically and be drawn in the following options:
  • horizontal or vertical;
  • normal or italic(slope);
  • standard continuous or thin line type.
It is possible to be changed the height/width character ratio via the parameter "scale factor". By the parameter "Text line angle" you could specify the angle of the text rows with respect to horizontal axes of the coordinate system. The "text" function draws text of any desired size. The text is entered via the keyboard.

PROMPTS:
  • Enter text:
  • Start (end or mid) point of text?
The point you select or enter at this prompt depends on the text alignment selected via the "params" option of the control menu. The default is text alignment left justify, which requires a point to by entered only. If the default is text alignment between two points, it requires second point to be entered at the following additional prompt: "Select/Enter second point" If you use the default two-point alignment and you specify the same point on both prompts, no text is drawn and you get the following error message: "Identical points" After the specification of the text position you are prompted to specify the height of the letters: "Enter text height" MonoGRAF provides the possibility of entering any number of text rows (as a type writer). The distance between rows is equal to 0.6 multiplied by h (where h is the text height). You can change the distance via the parameter "text line spacing".

PARAMETERS available via the "params" function of the control menu: "text font, text type, text slope, text alignment, scale factor, text line spacing, linetype, color, level of detail". Sample text objects produced by MonoGRAF are shown in fig. below.

Draw a text

Draw a text



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